Recently I upgraded my work laptop to Windows 8. It has been a definite learning curve but so far so good. We use OneNote to share information between teams and I could successfully add a notebook but after closing OneNote and opening it again, I would be unable to authenticate to open the notebook again. If I closed the notebook, I could add it back, authenticate and work again. My personal notebook worked fine and would sync without any issues. After a few days of this, I decided to figure out what was causing the issue.
In troubleshooting this issue, I saw that there were 2 versions of OneNote listed in the Open with application box. One of the choices was OneNote and the other was OneNote (desktop). This led me down the trail of seeing if I had the Win8 OneNote application installed. I did. When I opened it, I noticed that it was not authenticated. Since I do not have a need to have both the desktop version and the app installed/available, I removed the app and authentication for the shared notebook started working as expected. Hopefully this will save you the headache that I encountered when troubleshooting this issue if you are a OneNote lover like I am.